• Visit Italy in the past


  •  There are many monuments in Italy on the Apennine Peninsula in southern Europe, which has always been a place I want to go.

     
    As a unified country, the history of Italy is not long. It has been counted since the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, and it is only a hundred years old. But if you count from ancient Rome, it has a history of more than 2,700 years, and if you consider that ancient Rome inherited the culture of ancient Greece, then it can be said that Italy is one of the main sources of western culture. Therefore, this place has gathered many cultural monuments and historical celebrities, and it has always been the number one country in the world's cultural heritage. Although China now ranks first in the number of world heritage sites and 41 of them are cultural heritages, this Italy has 49 cultural heritages. However, after all, China started to declare world cultural heritage at UNESCO relatively late, and foreigners know very little about Chinese culture, so many Chinese cultural monuments have not been included in this cultural heritage list; for example, the Sanxingdui site in Sichuan has not yet Included in the World Cultural Heritage, it is a monument of more than 3,000 years, much longer than the ancient city of Pompeii in Italy.
    If you systematically explore the development of Western culture according to the historical age, you should start with Egypt. Egyptian culture has an impact on ancient Greece. Then Greece and Italy, that is, ancient Greek and Roman culture, can always see the late Renaissance. Cultural relics. A very important part of the history of ancient Rome, and especially ancient Greece, is in what is now Turkey, including Byzantine and Ottoman culture. What can not be ignored during this period is the cultural relics on the Iberian Peninsula. Although there are few traces of General Hannibal, North African Muslim culture has left a deep mark on the Iberian Peninsula, and it has an ancient culture in Italy. Had a great impact. There are also cultural relics from the great voyage period. The entire Iberian Peninsula has more world cultural heritage than Italy. After the Renaissance, the center of gravity of Western culture gradually left the Apennine Peninsula. This is the time to see France. The Gothic period, Baroque, Neoclassical, Impressionism, and later New Art all have to go to France. France is still a world art center of. After going to Italy this time, I did look at the history of Western culture and art. Since the division of Eastern and Western Rome in 400 AD, another branch of ancient Roman culture has developed in the direction of Eastern Europe, and gradually formed the current Orthodox church culture. This will be seen next time.
    It is no longer possible to verify who was the earliest person in this place in Italy. Although Westerners think that the migration of Homo sapiens must pass here, these savages do not seem to stay here. From the records that can be verified now, the early Turks here in Italy must be ancient Greeks, some of them were Lydians in Asia Minor in the 13th century BC, and they lived on the Aegean Sea; some of them were ten BC Refugees who escaped from the theater during the Trojan War in the second century were also residents of the Aegean Sea. After these ancient Greeks dug in the Apennine peninsula, of course, they brought ancient Greek customs over. They gathered here in a place called Etruscan, and everyone called this period the history of the Italian history. The strongest period of Trullian civilization was the sixth century BC. Remember this Etruscan, this is a very important source of ancient Roman art. In the 10th century BC, equivalent to the Western Zhou Dynasty in China, another group of people came to the Apennine Peninsula. They lived in a place called Latinum, where they lived and fought. Later, the two most powerful brothers won the site. The brother who pushed the wall to win was the big brother named Romulus. Romulus became the head of the tribe. They snatched many women from the neighboring Sabine village as wives. Romulus himself chose a wife. Romulus has unlimited scenery, so he said that he is a country here, proclaiming himself king, and using his own name as the name of the kingdom. This is the origin of the Roman city. The Sabine was robbed of the woman, and of course they had to fight with the Romans. The outcome of the fight between the two was determined by these Sabine women who had children in Rome. They chose to live with each other and the Sabine was incorporated. Roman kingdom, this is the first expansion of ancient Rome. This process was described by the French neoclassical painter David in the painting "Mediation of the Sabine Woman". I saw this painting last time at the Louvre in Paris. This is one of the representative works of neoclassicalism. Next to it is David's painting, the "Crown of Napoleon." After the confluence of the Romans and Sabines, the period of ancient Roman rule began, and the first king was Romulus. The Roman Empire lasted two hundred and forty years, and by the seventh generation of King Tuckven collapsed, this was to 509 BC. In China during the Spring and Autumn Period, Confucius has entered a year of no confusion and is about to travel around the country.
    The Roman people expelled the Little Takwen and established the Roman Republic. The governing bodies were the Senate, the consuls, and the tribal councils. The Senate is a noble institution, which is equivalent to the upper house of a parliament; the tribal conference is a civilian election, which is equivalent to the lower house of a parliament; During the Roman Republic, the Romans began military expansion. By 395 BC, the nearest Etruscan had been occupied, and it became the most powerful country on the Apennine Peninsula. In the following decades, it resisted the Gauls' attack from the north to the south, and occupied the northern part of the Apennine Peninsula by 330 BC. Beginning in 264 BC, Carnegie General Hannibal of North Africa was defeated through three Punic wars; by 200 BC, a large area of ​​land along the Mediterranean coast was compiled. At the same time, Rome fought against Macedonia, conquering Macedonia by 146 BC, occupying large areas of Greece and Asia Minor. At this time, Rome had taken over the Mediterranean coast and became the overlord. In 82 BC, Sura, a nobleman, became the first dictator in ancient Roman history. The Spartacus uprising broke out in 72 BC. Sura stepped forward to suppress it and was lucky to succeed. After Sura died, Krassu, Caesar, and Pompeii formed the first three heads of alliance in 60 BC. The insidious Caesar laughed to the end. He killed the two allies and became a life dictator. At this time in China, it was the period of Emperor Liu Yuan of the Han Dynasty, and it was also the period of "strong offenders of the Ming Dynasty. Caesar was beautiful for a few years, because the assassin was murdered by the cheese in the bowl of the nobles. In 227 BC, the assassination of the king of the Qin Dynasty by Jing Jing failed, and he did not return it once. One hundred and sixty years later, the ancient Roman king of assassins successfully assassinated the Roman Qin king Caesar. Later, people from all over the world learned of Jing Jing to assassinate the king. The American Kennedy was killed by American Jing Jing. When Caesar died, he designated 19-year-old Octavian to take over. Octavian chose another two ancient Romans to form a three-headed alliance. The ending was still the same. Octavian killed those two allies.
    At the age of 19, Octavian rented an "Augustus" brand from the Senate, established the head of state system, and became king. Ancient Rome began the Roman Empire. At this time, Liu Cheng, the emperor of Han Dynasty, was the emperor of Han Dynasty after China's Emperor Han Yuan, and he started a foreign chaos, and he had a beauty named Zhao Feiyan. Octavian began to expand vigorously, conquering the entire Iberian Peninsula westward, and expanding all the way to the Rhine. After Octavian, there was a king named Nero, who was famous because he was a tyrant and killed Peter, Jesus' disciple. After Octavius ​​continued to expand vigorously and succeeded Emperor Trajan. His expansion maximized the territory of the Roman Empire, reaching east to the Persian Gulf, south to occupy northern Arabia, and north to occupy England. Tula really succeeded Hadrian to build a wall between England and Scotland, the so-called Hadrian's Wall, which is actually a pile of stones, not very good. By 293 AD, Diocletian began to implement the rule of four emperors, established two Caesars and two Augustus, and divided the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. Emperor Constantine reunified East and West Rome in 323 and became the only king. At this time in China was the second year of Yongchang of Emperor Sima Shao of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the third grandson of Sima Yi's grandson, and the Sima Yi family in power. Constantinople issued the "Milan Amnesty" to legalize Christianity in the Roman Empire, and Christians are no longer bullied; a Nicenesian conference was held to determine the basic Christian doctrine; these two measures are Christian occupation of religious rule in Europe The basis of status. When the Emperor Theodosius I died in 393, he passed the Eastern and Western Roman Empire to two sons. From the fifth century AD, the Visigoths from the north began to attack the Western Roman Empire. In 415, the Visigoth Kingdom was established in Toulouse, France (Airbus's headquarters and factory in Toulouse), and the Western Roman Empire stepped on. The declining sunshine avenue has been completely chaotic and can only survive. In 476, rebel general Odoyak declared loyalty to the Eastern Roman Emperor, and also delivered the Western Roman national emblem to Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, and announced the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. At this time in China was the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties, and in the Northern Wei Dynasty was the six years of Yanxing of Emperor Xiaowen; in the Southern Dynasty, it was the Yuan emblem of Emperor Liu Yu who was abolished after the Liu and Song dynasties.
    After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Italy entered a dark Middle Ages. During this period, the empire disintegrated and many city-states were established on the territory of the original empire, including the Kingdom of Lombardy, the Principality of Milan, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, and the Republic of Florence, among others. These city-states are loose administrative regions established by the East and West Goths and Germans, and have no substantial national significance. This caused great confusion in Roman culture, and the church played a large role in the rule. Northern Italy in the Middle Ages was constantly occupied by the Franks and the Holy Roman Empire, and it was always in a fragmented state. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, an Italian unification movement was born. In 1861, an Italian kingdom was established. The capital was located in Florence, and the site was limited to northern Italy. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 brought a good opportunity to the Kingdom of Italy. Napoleon III transferred the army living in southern Italy back to France. The Kingdom of Italy took the opportunity to win southern Italy and unified the whole territory in 1871. Then the capital was removed from Florence. Moving to Rome, this is the prototype of modern Italy. After the defeat of Italy in World War II, in 1946, the people voted to abolish Wang Zheng and change to become the Italian Republic, which is now Italy.
     
    The first stop of our trip was Milan. Of course, Milan is a very old city. It was the place where Constantine the Great issued the "Milan Amnesty". At the time, Milan was the capital of the Western Roman Empire. Milan is a very literary city. The first building we saw in Milan was the famous La Scala Opera House.

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  2. DARYA  Uploaded on  2020-01-03